Author Archives: incidentalacademic

People are not problems

A recent article called Trends in Library Security came to my attention a while back. It was infuriating to me, and I had a few choice words for it on Twitter. I am often hesitant to say too much about this topic because I have the luxury of never having to actually deal with issues like drug use in the library bathrooms or confronting an angry patron who objects to the person looking at pornography on a public-use terminal. These are day-in-the-life instances in a public library worker’s world and I’m just an academic librarian firmly ensconced in her tower. It’s not my place to say how public library workers should or shouldn’t do their job; not all heroes wear capes, as they say. But then, this article was shared within MPOW*. So. I’ve got something to say about that.

First things first. Steve Albrecht, the author of the article is a white man who is a retired police. His wheelhouse is coaching city employees – and library workers specifically – on handling workplace violence. He seems to have profile in American libraryland. Furthermore, I will also offer the caveat that I am a Canadian, and we have gun control in this country. I am eternally grateful for this and cannot imagine what it is like to live in a place where fear of an active shooter situation erupting could happen at any moment. All that being acknowledged, I’d like to focus on the tone of this article and the underlying message that it sends. Don’t even get me started on the “related article” suggestion that follows this piece called the “To Catch A Library Thief: Black Belt Security” – it is next level awful (and not by Albrecht, to be clear).

TL;DR – it problematizes marginalized populations and is completely lacking in empathy for the human condition and the systemic issues that creates the marginalization. The author makes a lot of presumptions of ill intent on the part of library patrons and encourages an us vs. them dichotomy. It is also implicitly endorsed by all of the organizations that publish, sponsor and advertise this approach to library work.

While dealing with drug overdoses and ransomware attacks are very real and present issues facing library workers, I’m really uncomfortable with the tone presented here. For example, the scenario presented where someone is blocking the library entrance to pray is highly unlikely. The presumption that this person is trying to make a statement about religious freedom? Are you serious? Maybe they are really just TRYING TO PRAY. In my experience, people seeking somewhere to pray are just trying to find a quiet spot appropriate for their needs. What’s more likely at play here and is left unsaid, is that people praying in public spaces can make others feel uneasy. It’s useful for us to instead question why that makes us feel uneasy, and recall that as proponents of access to all, what are we doing to make our space more accessible for those looking for prayer space. This man suggests that we should resort to calling the police.

Another example is the problematizing of “emotional comfort animals”. The inherent ableism and disdain for people’s right to medical privacy and self-determination of need is so incredibly patronizing and insensitive. He portrays privacy laws as an impediment to asking inappropriate questions to determine whether or not they should be allowed to have their animal with them. Is the animal defecating on the floor? Growling at the children? That’s another issue entirely. Treat it separately from the question of need and have some faith that the person in question knows what they need and is really not out to make themselves a public nuisance.

The first sentence of this article refers to “challenging patrons who sometimes adversely affect library services, including people who are homeless, have a mental illness, or abuse substances” and goes on to refer to them as “common problems.” In and of itself, when we dismiss the homeless, mentally ill or addicted as a problem to be solved, we are not acting with empathy. We are not acknowledging the myriad reasons why people may be homeless, mentally ill or addicted. Poverty is not a lifestyle choice.

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American Libraries is a publication of ALA. Furthermore, ALA offers webinars led by Albrecht. My boss shared this article with our entire staff indicating that it was “useful.” Respectfully, I disagree. I think it’s downright harmful. Yesterday, as I pondered this post, a respected archivist who did important work in transforming the whiteness of the archives world quit. He declared that professionalism is the problem in the perpetuation of oppression and white supremacy:

Professionalism emphasizes “the work” — its completion, its evaluation, its perpetuity, etc. — without a meaningful critique of how “the work” mandates a replication of the patriarchy, oppression, and violence many in our world experience.

I can’t help but draw a parallel between that observation and this situation where a former cop’s expertise is upheld as the gold standard in how we do our work. What about leading with empathy? ALA is the same organization that invited Brene Brown – the queen of empathy – as a feature speaker at their conference. What if library managers hired life coaches instead of security experts to train their staff? If instead of perpetuating the notion that patrons are “difficult”, up to no good, and mean to do harm, what if we spent more time thinking about what brought them in the door that day, and what sort of reality they are living? It may not change the need to have to escalate if there is a genuinely dangerous situation, but when we act with empathy, we are far more likely to effect positive change. Small stones making lots of ripples and all of that.

I’ll conclude by mentioning that in the print issue of this magazine, this article was adjacent to this one. An interesting juxtaposition. We may no longer be explicitly excluding certain populations, but when we prioritize the comforts of the privileged, we are implicitly telling certain people that they don’t belong – and the cycle continues. We can do better. We can be better.

*context: I work at a downtown campus library that is open to the public.

 

Oh hello there, LFL® supporters

Hi there! If you’ve clicked on this, you may be a supporter of Little Free Libraries® and you’ve read about how I hate them and want them stopped. Before you engage with me, please consider the following:

  1. Myself and my research partner have no interest in “stopping” neighbourhood book exchanges, nor do we HATE Little Free Libraries. Those words were written by a journalist who is paid for the amount of clicks he gets on articles he writes. While I don’t think it was fair of him to paint us with that brush, that’s the biz. The rest of his piece fairly represents our work.
  2. Please, please consider reading our entire article. You can find it free here. It’s long. It’s nuanced. But it’s representative of a significant amount of research conducted over a long period of time. I assure you, we’ve thought a LOT about this subject.
  3. Please also note – though it should be obvious from the title of the article – our critique is focused on the non-profit organization LFL®, and not grassroots book exchanges. Share books with your neighbours – please, by all means, share away – but don’t call it a library.
  4. Finally, we sought to provide an alternative point of view on a subject that has undergone almost zero critique. We are researchers exploring a phenomenon in our field. You can disagree with us. That’s okay. But similarly, we can disagree with you too. That’s also okay.

On a final note, we implore you to inquire about the state of funding for your local public library. How are they doing? Is there something you could do to help give them a boost? Maybe you already do – and we applaud you for that – but if you haven’t checked in with the state of their funding or been to visit a branch in a while, please do that. They are so vital to the community and at risk in many corners of the world. They need your voice.

Thanks for reading our research, and we hope that it’s given you a bit of food for thought.

Jane & Jordan

Reinvention – easier said than done

I’m officially mid-career and it is not as glamorous as I thought it would be. I began my career in librarianship on a trajectory toward management. Early on, I was groomed to be a “leader” and I drank that Kool-Aid with gusto. Consequently, I became a department head within a few years of having started at MPOW. As a close friend observed, it was possible that I’d “seen the top of the mountain too soon.” I finished off my second term with a sabbatical where I focussed my attention on creating a research agenda and a firm intention to “reinvent” myself as an academic librarian. With a full semester back to work under my belt, I admit to still feeling disoriented and unfocussed; reinvention has not gone well.

For now, I’m doing my best to try on new portfolios. I have several temporary subject assignments and am dabbling in projects that need some attention and would benefit from my experience in collections. I think I am aware that I’m in a holding pattern, but it’s hard to really throw oneself into the dubious job title of “floater librarian” – temporary though it may be, patience is not my strong suit. I find myself distracted by shiny things. I was even seriously considering a move to apply for new gig, but then the reality of Toronto real estate and familial stability took over.

My vision of throwing myself into my research went a bit off the rails.  I went from the high of being an invited speaker to a well respected conference and writing the most read Open Shelf (not exactly the New York Times, but still, I was chuffed) article ever to the low of having that same well received work turned into a scholarly article and rejected in a particularly soul destroying peer review experience. Rallying to keep your chin up and keep going is really rough, especially when you haven’t experienced a lot of failure in your professional and academic life (see above reference to leadership grooming). I have to keep telling myself that I have it in me to do scholarly work. The temptation to just turn my back on that part of my career is strong. I’ve got career status. Fuck it. I can just rest on my laurels and meet the bare minimum, right? That’s a path that people seem to choose (is that a choice or does that just happen when you aren’t paying attention?). Luckily, I’ve got a husband who’s willing to call me on that bullshit and remind me that I’m better than that. And so, I carry on, and just hope that this relentless feeling of inadequacy will eventually pass. It will, won’t it?

I don’t think I’m alone in this wilderness. For many of us that are mid-career, perhaps we feel we need to branch out and gain expertise in other areas. Even if it’s just to try it on, it’s important to continue to learn and challenge ourselves. For many, there is immense pressure to move into management. There are no shortage of admin postings to aspire to out there. Chances are if you work for a Canadian university library, you’ve been encouraged to attend management training and had your personality categorized and presented to you in an attractively bound handout to help you locate yourself within your organizational culture. While I am in the inverse of this situation – I’m trying to back away from management – it’s difficult to find guidance in mid-career development, particularly if you aren’t keen to move to a different workplace, or climb the ladder toward administration.  I got a taste of work life balance and I aim to keep it, at least in this time of my family life.

So, what to do? In discussing this with my peers, there are options. Accept temporary assignments to cover while others are on leave when you can, it will better prepare you to accept new roles as they come available. Consider an international exchange – while a bureaucratic nightmare, they are definitely a gem of an opportunity to refresh your professional self. Secondments and local job exchanges are also appealing options – particularly if we were able to manage creating cross-sectoral opportunities. There would be much to gain from a year in public service at the public library and vice versa. Heck, you could even identify what you see as a gap in your own institution and offer yourself up for the job. Much depends on local organizational culture and administration’s openness to suggestion, but there’s nothing stopping you from trying.

The paperwork and hustling you’d have to do in order to make these things happen are daunting, but in absence of staying put (also totally an option for those who are happy where they are – I salute you) or going up, it’s awfully easy to fall into a comfortable pattern of “good enough” service and scholarship. It’s not where I imagined I’d be when I was a fresh faced go-getter, but it’s also up to me to look it in the face and challenge it. I can keep floating, or I can regroup and swim.

The best laid plans

Sometimes, research doesn’t always go the way you thought it would. Myself and my colleagues, Curtis Sassur and Alison Skyrme, had high hopes for the research project we conceived back in April 2014. With fire in our bellies over the state of the labour market in memory institutions and pie-in-the-sky visions of 100% response rates, we forged ahead with our First Big Research Project exploring the use of unpaid internships in Ontario academic libraries. Two and a half years later, here we are – decidedly shunning the traditional route in favour of a popular blog – Letters To A Young Librarian. Thanks so much to Jessica Olin for agreeing to work with us on this! It’s been a great experience.

So, here it is. The culmination of our efforts, in all its glory. This is the unreviewed version, as submitted. It’s far from perfect, but we worked long and hard on it, and it would be a shame for it not to see the light of day. While we were unable to draw any definitive conclusions, we think there is some value in our findings. We hope that others can learn from both the experience we had from project conception to submission, and the outcomes of the research itself.

UnpaidInternships-MasterDoc

On being good enough

I am an atheist, but there is one thing that I read almost daily as though it were doctrine, and that is Desiderata. I have a very old framed copy of it that I inherited from my Aunt Jane. She obtained it on one of her adventures through North Africa in the ’60s. It’s hung in my hall and I read it while I brush my teeth. While I find solace in most of it, there are some passages that help me in my professional life, and I share these now for #lismentalhealth week.

I’ve written about imposter syndrome before. I suffer from it pretty much constantly. It, therefore, behooves me to remind myself of this – often:

If you compare yourself with others, you may become vain or bitter, for always there will be greater and lesser persons than yourself.

Superstars are over-rated. It’s unfortunate that our profession rewards elitism via invite-only institutions that will fast track your career to management/prestige, and by annual lists of People Who Matter, but there you have it. It’s there and how we react to it is what is under our control. It was a major revelation to me when I hit middle age that mediocrity is a really sweet spot to be in. I don’t mean mailing it in when you get to work everyday or being a lump until you can cash in on that sweet pension (forgive my privilege here as that is my own work situation – I’m truly fortunate). I mean being okay with going to work and doing your best. You don’t have to be The President of everything. Being the yeoman is totally okay, and sometimes, it’s the position where you get to have the most fun because you aren’t the Big Cheese and you’re not in the spotlight.

And you know what? If there’s a year or two (or three, or four) when you need to take a back seat and disengage for a while, that’s okay too.

Beyond a wholesome discipline, be gentle with yourself. You are a child of the universe no less than the trees and the stars; you have a right to be here.

When you are on the tenure track/probation, or job hunting, sometimes you feel like you need to say yes to every opportunity presented to you. As someone in mid-career, I can definitely vouch for the fact that there will ALWAYS be more work to do, another volunteer position, another project to collaborate on. But there won’t always be time to spend with a loved one, or regenerating on your own, or taking a trip that just so happens to be available to you. Take care of you first – you will be no good to anyone if you burnout, most of all yourself. I’ll repeat – be gentle with yourself. We are our own worst critics and while that can be valuable for reflection, it can quickly turn to self-flagellation.

As far as possible, without surrender, be on good terms with all persons. Speak your truth quietly and clearly; and listen to others, even to the dull and the ignorant; they too have their story.

Your thoughts and feels are totally valid. Share them. Speak up. People are going to disagree with you and that’s okay. That’s why the phrase “we’re going to have to agree to disagree” was invented, so that you can still have your say, but be able to respond to the blowhard who thinks you’re wrong. That being said, be open to changing your mind. Stubbornness is a trait often celebrated from childhood onward, but damn if fighting with a donkey isn’t unpleasant. We need to allow our identities and ideas to reinvent and grow.

Take kindly the counsel of the years, gracefully surrendering the things of youth.

Similarly, don’t be afraid to admit when you made a mistake. I make mistakes all the time. It doesn’t make you a bad person, it just makes you human. Learn from them, apologize, move on. Forgive others for their transgressions – grudges are probably the biggest waste of mental energy I can name.

Be careful with life, strive to be happy.

… and brush your teeth. Big love, all.

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Job openings and job seekers/grads in Canadian libraries

As part of a research project on unpaid internships in Ontario academic libraries (forthcoming), I had the chance to play around with data from the Canadian Occupational Projection System (COPS). The gap in job seekers vs. opening for the occupational classification of Librarians, Archivists, Conservators and Curators was concerning, to say the least:

Screen Shot 2016-01-04 at 11.40.27 AMThis lead me to wonder how many graduates were going to be facing this hiring landscape.

I used the data on program performance available from ALA to produce the following graph on the number of degrees awarded in Canadian ALA accredited schools. ALA grads and COPSConsidering the job openings are projected to max out at 547 in 2021 (and recall we are also including conservators and curators!), this data seems to indicate that there are far too many ALA accredited masters degrees being sent to a market that cannot accommodate them.

The overall trend for degrees awarded in Canadian schools*, however, does seem to be headed downward – maybe.

total degrees awarded

I mean, I know none of this is shocking (right??!!), but a little bit o’ evidence never hurts. Happy New Year!

tobia sobbing

*WTF happened in 2013 – how many of those grads are still looking for work?

Sources:

American Library Association. (n.d.) Trend data by program, including student-to-faculty ratios, enrolment, graduation. Retrieved from: http://www.ala.org/accreditedprograms/reportsandpublications/prismreports

Employment and Social Development Canada – 2013 COPS Projections. (2012). Occupational Projection Data 2013-2022 – Librarians, Archivists, Conservators And Curators. Retrieved from http://occupations.esdc.gc.ca/sppc-cops/.4cc.5p.1t.3ondatas.2arch@-eng.jsp

 

The community based archive as a tool for activism

Author’s note: I wrote this paper for my major assignment in Mad People’s History, a course I took through the Chang School at Ryerson. My first dabble into the world of archives – fascinating stuff and a much different tone than the library literature I am accustomed to reading. I felt pretty good about what I wrote (my professor agreed and I got a great mark!), so I thought I’d share here.

The idea that nature is constructed, not discovered – that truth is made, not found.” – Donna Haraway.

According to the Association of Canadian Archivists, in response to the question, “Why archives?”, archives exist to ensure records of historical significance are preserved in order to help society understand their history. This is turn, allows society to learn from the past to create a better future (ACA, 2007). Traditionally, archives are the domain of public and private institutions, however, community based archives are increasingly being created and viewed as powerful tools for activism. In fact, the role of archivist as activist is the topic of in-depth study with a rich body of literature that explores this fundamental shift in the professional identity of the archivist. This paper will explore how the Psychiatric Survivor Archives of Toronto (PSAT) is an ideal example of the power of community-based archives and will discuss the ways in which such an establishment challenges the status quo and helps support an activist community and how they can be used to help create a better future for individuals in that community.

According to PSAT’s mission statement, “The Archives seeks to reflect the broad diversity of views that are expressed by all people with a psychiatric history however they choose to self-identify. (Psychiatric Survivor Archives of Toronto, 2015) The collection itself is made up of 14 fonds from across the world. Only two are described in detail via an online finding aid – the Collective Fonds and the MindFreedom fonds. The remainder are fonds about individuals, both alive and deceased, and for entities such as the Queen Street Outreach Society. The original order has been preserved in the accessioning, as per standard archival practice, however non-standard subject headings have been applied to the records, which is not customary archival practice. This is significant given some of the subject terms listed; for example, ForcedTreatment, PoliceBrutality and MadPride are all emblematic of a survivor-centered approach to archives.

Of particular note is the Collective Fonds (CF), one of the two that have been described in the PSAT Guide.

The CF is produced for and by the broader community of psychiatric patients/clients, ex-patients/clients, users/consumers, and survivors, prisoners, and detainees who have donated flyers, posters, poetry, writings, audio-visual media, realia, etc. The CF was started by former PSAT board member, Kevin Jackson, and has been highlighted here to encourage people to donate materials. Their contributions connect PSAT to many ‘mad’ communities and augment the older, larger accessions sent by more ‘established’ activists and organizations. (Psychiatric Survivor Archives of Toronto, 2015)

In a paper that examines three different community-based queer archives, the authors stress that an archive’s relevance to the community is founded in the reliance on the community for donations – this ensures that the collection reflects their interests (Wakimoto, Bruce & Partridge, 2013). PSAT’s Collective Fonds are crucial to its functioning as a community based archives, allowing PSAT to create its own collection mandate and raison d’etre, unshackled by the conventions and standards to which traditional institutional archives are beholden. Among the items in the CF are letters, poetry, zines and leaflets – all items that have one common thread – they are tied to the psychiatric survivor movement. Traditional archives are largely focussed on institutional history and official documentation – the items contained in the CF would likely not fit into this mould, and therefore, their preservation would be at risk without PSAT. As Caswell observes, “community-based archives serve as an alternative, grassroots venue for communities to make collective decisions about what is of enduring value to them and to control the means through which stories about their past are constructed.” (Caswell, 2014). David Reville stated, “My memory will fail me sometimes. I am hoping that those who remember more and different stories than I do will share them with me. The more shouts of “no, no, no, it wasn’t like that at all!” and “you’ve left out the most important part (person, event, idea)” the more complete history we will have.” (Reville, 2015) Archival documentation is crucial to create primary source material; it remembers when people don’t, or can no longer.

Archives have the power to tell the story of someone’s life. Particularly for marginalized populations, archives must be handled carefully in order to ensure that the stories are accessioned in a way that does not further marginalize. As evidenced in the Who Am I project, archival practice that does not take a survivor-centered approach can prolong trauma and re-open old wounds. This interdisciplinary research project explored issues of creating, storing and accessing records using tools from the fields of social work, history and archival studies and focuses on children in care. In interviews with survivors about the effect of mishandled records, one survivor expresses that she “would have liked to have some input in a story that’s going to be written about me.” (Centre For Excellence in Child and Family Welfare, 2011) The issue of agency in archival record management is more fluid in the realm of community-based archives as compared to institutional. In her paper that focused on survivor-centred approaches to human-rights abuse documentation, Caswell asserts that “The past victims of human rights abuse depicted in these records did not choose to be documented; the least we can do as memory workers is honor their ongoing sense of agency by centering them and their wishes in our present decision making processes…” (Caswell, 2014).

The conventional sources used to study madness in history have typically been from the institutional perspective – hence, the genesis of Mad Studies as we are learning it today. In a paper on historiographical trends in the study of madness, Wright and Saucier analyze the issue of using patient records as primary sources, among them anonymity requirements and the lack of perspective that these kinds of sources contain. After all, madness did not exist solely within the walls of asylums, nor are we assured that the privacy of patients and their families are being protected for a universally held cause – namely that of embarrassment to be associated with madness. (Wright and Saucier, 2012) Buchanan and Bastian, in their paper on the potential of community based archives in activist work, ruminate on formal approaches to history: “emphasis on producing a coherent interpretation limits our ability to understand the potential of archival records for developing more poetic and multitudinous accounts of “what might happen” … trajectories of where this information might lead the participants left unspecified.” (Buchanan and Bastian, 2015). PSAT has a rich and varied collection of records from the survivor community, formal and informal organizations, and it holds a multitude of formats. This variety in perspectives creates a rich resource for community empowerment, regardless of institutional affiliation or professional designation. One needn’t be a doctor or academic to access and use the archives to tell and re-tell history. A survivor has a safe place to preserve their own story (on their own terms), so that in the future, it may be part of a greater and ever-shifting narrative. This is the power of archives.

Linda Morrison, in Talking Back to Psychiatry, tells us what the consumer/survivor movement is not: “[it] is not a centralized national movement with well-defined leadership, membership, goals and objectives. It has no official leaders, no official hierarchy, and no ongoing organizational structure.” (Morrison, 2005, p. 58) Much like the movement itself, PSAT, as a community-based archives is non-traditional in that ownership and control over it is in the hands of a fluid group of people who have significant personal investment in its existence, and to see that it is used as a tool for progress. Schwartz and Cook, in their paper on the role of archivist as activist, posit that “They (archives) can be a tool of hegemony; they can be a tool of resistance.” and that they are “a reflection and often justification for the society that creates them.” (Schwartz and Cook, 2002). Indeed, as found in the study of queer archives, “In preserving their own histories, queer community archives protected and made visible that which had been considered unmentionable by mainstream society.” (Wakimoto, et. al, 2013) The sin of omission in record preservation can have the effect of erasure – making entire communities feel invisible. Marginalized groups are thus reminded that they cannot trust established authorities to collect and preserve their history. A community based archive, such as PSAT, takes control of their collection direction and therefore, achieve what Caswell recommends for the activist archive: “a multiplicity of formats and perspectives on past atrocities ensures that archives allow space for contestation, disagreement, and debate rather than reify singular or dominant metanarratives.” (Caswell, 2014)

To illustrate this dichotomy, we can look at the documented record appraisal practices of an official institution such as the Fairfield Psychiatric Hospital and the Bedfordshire Record Office. One can immediately see the advantage of an independent archive unshackled by the bureaucracy that drives decisions made via government records offices. The appraisal process leans toward doctor’s perspectives, worker’s reports and only preserves representative samples of patient records, while all others were destroyed. Personal life testimonies were only to “be retained for their Social historical content (information on employment patterns, population movement, housing, and ethnic minorities in particular).” (Collet-White and Ward, 1994)

The following statement by Schwartz and Cook has just been clearly illustrated: “…some can afford to create and maintain records, and some cannot, that certain voices thus will be heard loudly and some not at all; that certain views and ideas about society will in turn be privileged and others marginalized.” (Schwartz and Cook, 2002) PSAT has taken the narrative of the consumer/survivor movement into the communities’ own hands by virtue of its very existence. Community archives counter the inadequacies in the official record (Buchanan and Bastian, 2015) and thus create opportunity to challenge the dominant narratives of madness in society, and create the possibility for future dialogue as yet unknown. Caswell reminds readers that self-representation is key in the creation of the community/survivor-focused archive – this is embodied in the simple yet bold statement “nothing about us without us”. (Caswell, 2014) David Reville teaches Mad Studies students “the Consumer-survivor-ex-patient movement in constant flux – the history of it is recorded, but needs to be centralized for stories to be told. Many activists want to tell their stories; they have ideas about how they want to change things.” (Reville, 2009) Without organizations such as PSAT, those stories would be in grave danger of being lost to history.

Works Cited

Association of Canadian Archivists. Why Archives? (2007). Retrieved from http://archivists.ca/sites/default/files/Attachments/Outreach_attachments/Why-archives-OC-07.pdf

Buchanan, A., & Bastian, M. (2015). Activating the archive: rethinking the role of traditional archives for local activist projects. Archival Science, 15(4), 429–451. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10502-015-9247-3

Caswell, M. (2014). Toward a survivor-centered approach to records documenting human rights abuse: lessons from community archives. Archival Science, 14(3-4), 307–322. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10502-014-9220-6

Centre For Excellence in Child and Family Welfare, (Director). (2011). Who Am I? Making Records Meaningful [Motion Picture].

Collett‐White, J., & Ward, K. (1994). Appraisal of mental hospital patient case files: The Bedfordshire record office experience. Journal of the Society of Archivists, 15(2), 181-186. Retrieved November 23, 2015, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00379819409511745

Morrison, Linda J. (2005) Talking Back to Psychiatry: The Psychiatric Consumer/Survivor/Ex-Patient Movement. New York. Routledge.

Psychiatric Survivor Archives of Toronto. (2015). Mission statement. Retrieved from Psychiatric Survivor Archives of Toronto: http://www.psychiatricsurvivorarchives.com/

Reville, D. (Writer), & The G. Raymond Chang School of Education, R. U. (Director). (2009). Mad People’s History – presenting the consumer/survivor/ex-patient movement [Motion Picture].

Reville, D. (2015). C/S/X Movement: A Social Context for a Mad Movement. Mad People’s History, DST504 – Module 6 . Toronto, ON, Canada: G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education.

Schwartz, J. M., & Cook, T. (2002). Archives, records, and power: The making of modern memory. Archival Science, 2(1-2), 1–19. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF02435628

Wakimoto, D. K., Bruce, C., & Partridge, H. (2013). Archivist as activist: lessons from three queer community archives in California. Archival Science, 13(4), 293–316. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10502-013-9201-1

Wright, D., & Saucier, R. (2012). Madness in the Archives: Anonymity, Ethics, and Mental Health History Research. Journal of the Canadian Historical Association. Retrieved November 11, 2015, from http://www.erudit.org.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/revue/jcha/2012/v23/n2/1015789ar.pdf